Better Urban Growth in Tanzania Key Messages.

    Tanzania is undergoing an urban transformation. By 2015 expanding city boundaries, natural population growth and in-migration accounted for the world’s sixth highest rate of urban population growth. By mid-century, the country’s urban population is estimated to exceed 60 million, compared to 15 million in 2012.

    In Dar es Salaam the population is projected to more than double from 4.4 million in 2012 to 10.8 million in 2030.

    • Dar es Salaam is Tanzania’s largest city. Secondary cities will continue to rapidly grow but are not projected to challenge Dar es Salaam’s status.

    Low per capita income and the absence of conventional local government results in many urban residents relying on self-provisioned services.

    • Rapid urban population growth without a strong fiscal base places a strain on the limited urban infrastructure and services.
    • Over 70% of Dar es Salaam’s population lives in neighbourhoods without adequate housing, or publicly provided services such as safe drinking water or sanitation.
    • In most cases the evolution of urban areas has outpaced the enforcement of spatial plans.
    • Informal urban expansion results in life expectancy in urban Tanzania that is lower than in rural areas, and maternal and infant mortality rates that are higher.
    • The labour force participation rate in urban centres is lower than rural areas— 76.2% participation in Dar es Salaam and 84.4% in other urban centres compared to 89.9% in rural areas.

    Both new financing options and new service delivery mechanisms will be required to provide mass transport, energy, sanitation, water and solid waste management to all urban residents.

    • Financing plans need to be linked to specific infrastructure priorities and urban plans.
    • The national budget needs to support investment

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ESRFs activities are supported by the Government of the United Republic of Tanzania, United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), African Capacity Building Foundation (ACBF) and International Development Research Centre (IDRC)